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Conducting a Chi Square Test using SPSS to Analyze the Benefits of Exercise on Wellbeing Assignment Solution.
Assignment Instructions
Questionnaire Guidelines – Creation, collection, input & analysis of a research topic.
 You are required to produce a report based on the results from a questionnaire designed for the purposes of this assignment, keeping it a simple, harmless topic.
 The questionnaire should be based on a topic of your choice. You must agree on the topic with your workshop tutor BEFORE you actually interview any respondents.
 The questionnaire should include a title and a brief introductory statement outlining the topic and must be respondent selfcompletion.
 Include a minimum of 10 questions in the questionnaire, each of which must count as a variable. One question must be on gender and one on age. Age must be measured in exact years. The remaining variables are dependent variables and should contain a mix of ordinal, nominal, and interval variables.
 Conduct the questionnaire on no fewer than 20 respondents (e.g. 10 male and 10 female). You should explain the purpose of the questionnaire to each respondent and seek her/his agreement to participate. It is the right of the respondent to refuse your request and under no circumstances must you pressurize them into partaking. Your sample should be friends and family or other students over the age of 18.
 Gender & age are your I.V. (Independent variables) as you will be comparing male & female, & age responses.
 Using the “transform” tag create a new variable: age ranges (for example, young (0  35), middleaged (36 – 64), and old (65 upwards).
 Enter the data from your questionnaire into SPSS and carry out the following
types of analysis on your data set:
 Frequency distribution for each of the variables, including the new age variable.
 The appropriate MCT for each of the variables.
 Mean, standard deviation, median, mode, and range for original age variable.
 Cross tabulation of each of the dependent variables (Row) by gender and age recoded variable (I.V., Column, Manipulated). For each crosstabulation include both a relevant test of statistical significance (ChiSquare) and a measure of association (phi / Cramer’s V).
9. Create a Questionnaire Results file on a word document.
 The SPSS output presents a table or chart for each of the frequency distributions and the crosstabulations.
 All tables and charts must be numbered and labeled.
 Each table and chart must have a short interpretative description decoding the results of that table or chart. State what the chart says, means, and or highlights.
Assignment Solution
Statistical Analysis of Benefits of Exercise on Well Being
Introduction
The positive role that physical exercise can play in human wellbeing and the treatment of a range of medical conditions has received a great deal of attention over recent years, with numerous highprofile reports supporting the popular message that exercise is good for the human body. In addition, research has identified the longterm protection that regular exercise affords against a plethora of somatic complaints, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, a number of cancers, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Unfortunately, while the somatic benefits associated with physical exercise are well documented, hard evidence to support an equivalent relation between exercise and human wellbeing is less plentiful. The purpose of the present study is therefore to explore the association between gender, age physical exercise frequency, and a number of measures of wellbeing.
Source of Data
The data used for this study is primary data collected by administering a questionnaire to the respondents. Various questions on age, gender and exercise frequency, and a number of measures of wellbeing were answered. The data were coded and analyzed using SPSS.
Descriptive Statistics
Frequency Distributions
Gender
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent 
Valid Male  10  50.0  50.0  50.0 
Female  10  50.0  50.0  100.0 
Total  20  100.0  100.0 

Activity level
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent 
Valid very active  9  45.0  45.0  45.0 
active moderate  11  55.0  55.0  100.0 
Total  20  100.0  100.0 

Importance of exercise
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent 
Valid very important  18  90.0  90.0  90.0 
important  2  10.0  10.0  100.0 
Total  20  100.0  100.0 

How often exercise
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent 
Valid once a week  3  15.0  15.0  15.0 
twice a week  8  40.0  40.0  55.0 
more than three times a week  8  40.0  40.0  95.0 
not at all  1  5.0  5.0  100.0 
Total  20  100.0  100.0 

Sleeping better after exercise?
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent 
Valid yes  19  95.0  95.0  95.0 
no  1  5.0  5.0  100.0 
Total  20  100.0  100.0 

Do you compare yourself to others?
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent 
Valid yes  2  10.0  10.0  10.0 
no  14  70.0  70.0  80.0 
sometimes  4  20.0  20.0  100.0 
Total  20  100.0  100.0 

Satisfaction with your life
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent 
Valid very satisfied  9  45.0  45.0  45.0 
satisfied  11  55.0  55.0  100.0 
Total  20  100.0  100.0 

Define your mental health status
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent 
Valid good  10  50.0  50.0  50.0 
poor  1  5.0  5.0  55.0 
excellent  9  45.0  45.0  100.0 
Total  20  100.0  100.0 

The measure of Central Tendency
The table below gives the summary of each question included in the study, their level of measurement, and the appropriate measure of central tendency. The appropriate measure of tendency used for scale measurement is mean, nominal measurement is mode and ordinal measurement is Median.
ID  Question  Level of Measurement  Central Tendency  Value 
Question 1  What is your age?  Scale  Mean  42.85 
Question 2  What is your gender?  Nominal  Mode  Female, Male (BiModal) 
Question 3  How active do you consider yourself?  Ordinal  Median  2 (Active Moderate) 
Question 4  In your opinion how important is exercise?  Ordinal  Median  1 (Very Important) 
Question 5  How often do you exercise a week?  Ordinal  Median  2 (Twice a week)

Question 6  After a session of exercise do you sleep better?  Nominal  Mode  1 (Yes) 
Question 7  Do you compare yourself to others?  Nominal  Mode  2 (No) 
Question 8  Are you satisfied with your life?  Ordinal  Median  2 (Satisfied) 
Question 9  How you would define your emotional and mental status?  Ordinal  Median  1.5 
Question 10  Do you agree exercise helps support emotional and mental health?  Ordinal  Median  3 (Strongly Agreed) 
Recorded Age  Age Group  Ordinal  Median  3 (3645 Years) 
The tables below give the descriptive statistics for the age of the participants
Age
N Valid  20 
Missing  0 
Mean  42.85 
Median  42.00 
Mode  42a 
Std. Deviation  9.837 
Range  38 
a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown
The table above shows that the average age of the respondent is 42.85 with a standard deviation of 9.837. Majority of our 42 years and difference between the maximum and the minimum age was obtain to be 38.
CrossTabulation and ChiSquare
The chisquare test of independence is used to determine if there is a significant relationship between two categorical variables. For this analysis, we test for the dependency of the participant's response on each question on Age and gender.
Dependency on Age
The hypothesis and rejection rule are given below;
Null hypothesis: There is no association between the participant's age and their response to the question (i.e they are independent)
Alternative hypothesis: There is an association between the participant's age and their response to the question (i.e they are dependent)
Rejection rule: Reject the null hypothesis if the pvalue is less than 0.05
The results for the association between participant age and response to each question are given below;
How active do you consider yourself?
Activity level * Age group Crosstabulation
Count


 Age group 



 under 25  2635  3645  4655  56 and older  Total 
Activity level very active  0  2  2  4  1  9 
active moderate  1  2  5  2  1  11 
Total  1  4  7  6  2  20 
 Value  df  Asymp. Sig. (2sided) 
Pearson ChiSquare  2.780a  4  .595 
Likelihood Ratio  3.194  4  .526 
LinearbyLinear Association  .876  1  .349 
N of Valid Cases  20 


a. 10 cells (100.0%) have an expected count of less than 5. The minimum expected count is .45.
Symmetric Measures
 Value  Approx. Sig. 
Nominal by Nominal
Phi
 373  .595 
Cramer's V  373  .595 
N of Valid Cases  20 

Decision: We do not reject the null hypothesis
In your opinion how important is exercise?
Importance of exercise * Age group Crosstabulation
Count


 Age group 



 under 25  2635  3645  4655  56 and older  Total 
Importance of exercise very important  1  3  7  5  2  18 
important  0  1  0  1  0  2 
Total  1  4  7  6  2  20 
 Value  df  Asymp. Sig. (2sided) 
Pearson ChiSquare  2.780a  4  .595 
Likelihood Ratio  3.194  4  .526 
LinearbyLinear Association  .876  1  .349 
N of Valid Cases  20 


a. 10 cells (100.0%) have an expected count of less than 5. The minimum expected count is .45.
 Value  Approx. Sig. 
Nominal by Nominal
Phi
 .373  .595 
Cramer's V  .373  .595 
N of Valid Cases  20 

Decision: We do not reject the null hypothesis
In your opinion how important is exercise?
Importance of exercise * Age group Crosstabulation
Count


 Age group 



 under 25  under 25  under 25  under 25  56 and older  Total 
Importance of exercise very important  1  3  7  5  2  18 
important  0  1  0  1  0  2 
Total  1  4  7  6  2  20 
 Value  df  Asymp. Sig. (2sided) 
Pearson ChiSquare  2.407a  4  .661 
Likelihood Ratio  3.098  4  .542 
LinearbyLinear Association  .080  1  .778 
N of Valid Cases  20 


a. 8 cells (80.0%) have an expected count of less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
Symmetric Measures
 Value  Approx. Sig. 
Nominal by Nominal Phi  .347  .661 
Cramer's V  .347  .661 
N of Valid Cases  20 

Decision: We do not reject the null hypothesis
How often do you exercise a week?
How often exercise * Age group Crosstabulation
Count
 Gender  Gender 

 Male  Female  Total 
How often exercise once a week  0  3  3 
twice a week  4  4  8 
more than three times a week  5  3  8 
not at all  1  0  1 
Total  10  10  20 
 Value  df  Asymp. Sig. (2sided) 
Pearson ChiSquare  4.500a  3  .212 
Likelihood Ratio  6.051  3  .109 
LinearbyLinear Association  3.709  1  .054 
N of Valid Cases  20 


a. 8 cells (100.0%) have an expected count of less than 5. The minimum expected count is .50.
Symmetric Measures
 Value  Approx. Sig. 
Nominal by Nominal Phi  .474  .212 
Cramer's V  .474  .212 
N of Valid Cases  20 

Decision: We do not reject the null hypothesis
After a session of exercise do you sleep better?
Sleeping better after exercise? * Gender Crosstabulation
Count
 Gender  Gender  Total 
 Male  Female 

Sleeping better after exercise? yes  9  10  19 
no  1  0  1 
Total  10  10  20 
 Value  df  Asymp. Sig. (2sided)  Exact Sig. (2sided)  Exact Sig. (1sided) 
Pearson ChiSquare  1.053a  1  .305 


Continuity Corrections  000  1  1.000 


Likelihood Ratio  1.439  1  .230 


Fisher's Exact Test 


 1.000  .500 
LinearbyLinear Association  1.000  1  .317 


N of Valid Cases  20 




a. 2 cells (50.0%) have an expected count of less than 5. The minimum expected count is .50.
b. Computed only for a 2x2 table
 Value  Approx. Sig. 
Nominal by Nominal Phi  .229  .305 
Cramer's V  .229  .305 
N of Valid Cases  20 

Decision: We do not reject the null hypothesis
Do you compare yourself to others?
Do you compare yourself to others? * Gender Crosstabulation
Count
 Gender  Gender 

 Male  Female  Total 
Do you compare yourself to others? yes  1  1  2 
no  8  6  14 
sometimes  1  3  4 
Total  10  10  20 
 Value  df  Asymp. Sig. (2sided) 
Pearson ChiSquare  1.286a  2  .526 
Likelihood Ratio  1.333  2  .513 
LinearbyLinear Association  .655  1  .418 
N of Valid Cases  20 


a. 4 cells (66.7%) have an expected count of less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.00.
Symmetric Measures
 Value  Approx. Sig. 
Nominal by Nominal Phi  .254  .526 
Cramer's V  .254  .526 
N of Valid Cases  20 

Decision: We do not reject the null hypothesis
Are you satisfied with your life?
Satisfaction with your life * Gender Crosstabulation
 Gender  Gender 

 Male  Female  Total 
Satisfaction with your life very satisfied  6  3  9 
satisfied  4  7  11 
Total  10  10  20 
 Value  df  Asymp. Sig. (2sided)  Exact Sig. (2sided)  Exact Sig. (1sided) 
Pearson ChiSquare  1.818a  1  .178 


Continuity Correction  .808  1  .369 


Likelihood Ratio  1.848  1  .174 


Fisher's Exact Test 


 .370  .185 
LinearbyLinear Association  1.727  1  .189 


N of Valid Cases  20 




a. 2 cells (50.0%) have an expected count of less than 5. The minimum expected count is 4.50.
b. Computed only for a 2x2 table
Symmetric Measures
 Value  Approx. Sig. 
Nominal by Nominal Phi  .302  .178 
Cramer's V  .302  .178 
N of Valid Cases  20 

Decision: We do not reject the null hypothesis
How you would define your emotional and mental status?
Define your mental health status * Gender Crosstabulation
Count
 Gender  Gender 

 Male  Female  Total 
Define your mental health status good  4  6  10 
poor  1  0  1 
excellent  5  4  9 
Total  10  10  20 
 Value  df  Asymp. Sig. (2sided) 
Pearson ChiSquare  1.511a  2  .470 
Likelihood Ratio  1.900  2  .387 
LinearbyLinear Association  .451  1  .502 
N of Valid Cases  20 


a. 4 cells (66.7%) have an expected count of less than 5. The minimum expected count is .50.
Symmetric Measures
 Value  Approx. Sig. 
Nominal by Nominal Phi  .275  .470 
Cramer's V  .275  .470 
N of Valid Cases  20 

Decision: We do not reject the null hypothesis
Do you agree exercise helps support emotional and mental health?
Exercise helps mental health * Gender Crosstabulation
Count
 Gender  Gender 

 Male  Female  Total 
Exercise helps mental health agree  3  6  9 
strongly agree  7  4  11 
Total  10  10  20 
 Value  df  Asymp. Sig. (2sided)  Exact Sig. (2sided)  Exact Sig. (1sided) 
Pearson ChiSquare  1.818a  1  .178 


Continuity Correction  .808  1  .369 


Likelihood Ratio  1.848  1  .174 


Fisher's Exact Test 


 .370  .185 
LinearbyLinear Association  1.727  1  .189 


N of Valid Cases  20 




a. 2 cells (50.0%) have an expected count of less than 5. The minimum expected count is 4.50.
b. Computed only for a 2x2 table
Symmetric Measures
 Value  Approx. Sig. 
Nominal by Nominal Phi  .302  .178 
Cramer's V  .302  .178 
N of Valid Cases  20 

Decision: We do not reject the null hypothesis
Conclusion
The study was carried out to investigate the association between gender, age, physical exercise frequency, and a number of measures of wellbeing. The chisquare test of independence was performed and the results revealed that there is no significant association between the measures of wellbeing included in the study, age, and gender. That is, the participant's response to each of the questions is independent of their gender and age.