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Logit analysis homework solution

The solution provided below is based on logit regression. In this task, we have looked at the impact of alcohol on developing countries. We have also looked at the ages when students start taking alcohol and possible measures to reduce addiction.

Liquor abuse and mishandling by students

Here, we will look at the abuse of liquor especially by students. We have analyzed the data, come up with a report, and tabled the findings.


For this assignment, you will be writing a mini-paper in which the main method of data analysis must be binary Logit analysis. These instructions describe minimal requirements and are not intended to limit what you may do (except for the length restriction).

1. You may use any of the data sets provided on Blackboard to choose your own model or use the models I have suggested found under the Logistic Regression folder. If you decide to choose your own model decide what data set you want to use and think of some variables that you find interesting. Pick or create a dichotomous dependent variable. Pick or create at least four independent variables, one of which must be interval/ratio (or have at least five ordinal categories) and one of which must be dichotomous/and or dummy.

2. Before conducting a logit regression make sure to run descriptive statistics to have a feel for the data. After which run whatever analyses you want to examine. The focus of these analyses must be a Logit model though. If your initial model produces nothing interesting, you are encouraged to find a different model. Just as books and papers that find nothing interesting are rarely published, a mini-paper in Soc514 that does not find anything interesting will in all likelihood not receive an acceptable grade. Only interpret coefficients that are significant at the 0.05 level.

3. Write a paper describing your results. Start with descriptive statistics and then interpret the logit results. Your paper should be typed, double spaced, 11 point font or larger, with 1” margins. You may write up to five pages (NO MORE), excluding tables, figures, and appendices. Clearly label and turn in your log file (details below). The style and clarity of your writing will make a big difference in your grade. Your writing should read as though it is part of a journal article.

4. Your paper should include the following. The points are rough guidelines for how much each part is worth. But, for example, if you construct your variables incorrectly, then your overall grade will suffer.

(a) An introduction describing the process you want to examine. Provide some motivation for the analysis. You will need to conduct a brief review of the literature.

(b) A brief method and data section.

(c) Findings: Briefly describe the data using descriptive statistics and then interpret the outcome of logistic regression citing reasons why you think your results are the way they are. For example, you might have a finding that shows that women watch more TV than men. You could then argue that perhaps more women stay home moms meaning that they have more time to watch TV than men who are at work in the office or programming on TV is geared towards women compared to programs targeting men.

(d) A Discussion and conclusion section.
(e) References use the APA style
(f) Tables in a separate section.
(g) (Appendix A: Logfile showing your commands and computer output).

5. Your work should be presented in the following order with the italicized word and your name in the upper right-hand corner of the first page of each section:

(a) Paper: The body of the paper, including the introduction, methods section, analyses, conclusions, and references.
(b) Tables: The tables.
(c) Appendix A:


    In developing countries, alcohol addiction is becoming more prevalent. With over half of the world population being under the age of 25, there is worry about the extent to which students engage in the use of alcohol and the age at which this practice begins (Central Statistics Office, 2001). There are several reasons why students become involved in alcohol addiction. Liquor is a powerful, mood-altering substance, and its use by kids poses serious health risks to their developing bodies and minds. It has the potential to impair judgment and interfere with educational success. Young individuals who abuse alcohol, for example, may recall 10% less of what they have acknowledged than those who do not (Brown 2010). Extended sexual development, exposure to sexually transmitted infections, spontaneous pregnancy, self-ruinous and harsh lifestyle, criminal behavior, injury, and death can all be caused by alcohol (Johnston, 2010).

Adolescent drinking behaviors have been demonstrated to be influenced by family structure, drinking by family members, peer imitation, the prevalence of traditional festivals and rites, and tribal culture itself. According to a study, the most significant predictors of the development of problem drinking behavior in adolescents are parental drinking and peer alcohol consumption. According to Barnes (1987), family-related variables such as parental drinking behavior, family attachment, family relationship, and parental monitoring have a significant impact on adolescent drinking behavior. (Dunka&Roosa 1995; Erickson 1998). The finding that parental drinking behavior has a significant impact on teenage drinking behavior during the formative stage is in line with the notions of social learning theory, which states that behavior emerges from observation and learning. Adolescents are similarly influenced by their peer groups, especially the ideals of the culture in which they find themselves during their maturation stage. The recognition of peer drinking behavior and peer connections are more explicitly involved in these phenomena. (Scheir et al 1997, Baer& Bray 1999) According to the idea of social control and social development, the primary motivation for adolescent drinking is a tight bond with the drinking peer group. Adolescents are encouraged to form traditional social relationships with school and community organizations that would persuade them against alcohol usage in order to prevent learning drinking behavior from their peers.

    According to Jemigan (2011), high school students across the world are starting to drink before class. The age at which a guy first consumes alcohol is a good predictor of lifelong alcohol addiction and dependence. More than 40% of individuals who begin drinking before they are mature enough develop a dependency on alcohol at some point in their life (Grant & Dawnson, 1997). When it comes to the misuse of alcohol by secondary school students, there are a few factors to consider. One of them is parental influence, with some parents unaware of what their children are learning from them. It has been shown that guardians who mishandle booze are more likely to produce children who mishandle liquor (Melgosa, 2012). In this manner, learned behavior in the home/family setting is a significant factor in the misbehavior cycle. Guardians are far from the only people that have an influence on the lives of secondary school pupils. This study however looked at the risk factors for alcohol intake, problem drinking, and the repercussions that come with it among high school students.

Review of Related Literature

Liquor abuse and manhandling by children, as well as the problems that come with it, have been a part of humanity's past for a long time. What makes today different is the increased accessibility to a broad range of alcoholic drugs, as well as the decreasing age at which people try these substances (WHO, 2005). There are numerous contributing factors to alcohol abuse among students, according to many manufacturers and experts. Rice (1988) claims that in a school environment, calm usage has an effect on the children of both wealthy and poor households. Shoemaker (1994) contends that medication abuse is caused by a combination of personal, natural, and mental causes. According to the United Nations (1992), alcohol consumers, like other individuals, seek underwriting for their addiction from their partners, whom they try to persuade to join them in their vice as a method of seeking affirmation. The manner the partner collects determines whether peer pressure has a good or negative effect. Sadly, a similar companion weight that demonstrates to maintain a social gathering inside a recognized set of standards may also drive an unprotected person down the incorrect path. According to Karugu and Olela (1993), there is a fundamental link between the respondents' alcohol-related behavior and their colleagues' devotion to medicines. According to Karugu and Olela (1993), if a teenager associates with a variety of young people who use alcohol, the likelihood of a drug connection is increased. Much has been said and said on the connection between the home environment and booze abuse. The family, especially the guardians, is the primary mixing operator for the child. Muthigani (1995) demonstrates that a child learns his or her initial principles of behavior through the education of guardians and other adults in the environment. She claims that if a child notices a discrepancy between his or her parents' teaching and practice, it will raise questions, which will be carried over into adolescence, giving rise to bizarre behavior. Shoemaker (1994) associates misbehavior, such as alcohol misuse, with negligent, inconsistent, or repressive parental instruction. The manner in which parents and children cooperate, as well as the overall atmosphere in the home, are consistently linked to teenage misbehavior. Furthermore, having a parent with a drinking problem increases the likelihood of a similar problem developing in the future.

    Kimberly (2001) discovered that parental drug abuse is linked to substance abuse by their children in a study of parental behavior and medicine usage in California. The research, which was conducted among pre-school children, compared the effects of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents on their children's alcohol use. The findings revealed that alcoholic parents are more likely to have alcoholic children than non-alcoholic parents. These factors include a lack of intimacy between parents and children, a bad and contentious parental relationship, and a lack of observant or adequate supervision, all of which lead to alcohol addiction among adolescents. This is due to the fact that young people are permitted to share their experiences and problems with their guardians and parental figures in order to get crucial guidance or assistance (Catalano, 1999). In longitudinal research conducted in the Netherlands (Engles, 2005), it was shown that adolescent problem behaviors such as lack of poise and antagonism in male children, as well as guardians' booze manhandling, contributed to higher levels of savoring issues in young adulthood. As a result, such children end up misusing alcohol as a stress reliever. Keller (2002) found that children and young people who experience familial disturbing effects as a result of divorce and remarriage had higher levels of aggressive, insubordinate, reprobate behavior, as well as booze and drug addiction.

 In the Ghana survey, 52% of respondents agreed that their drinking habits were influenced by their families. The findings of a study on liquor use among women in the Nigerian village of Igbo-ora show that solitary, isolated, or separated women are more likely to drink than married or widowed women. The main problem with their drinking, according to the respondents, was that their children expected them to follow in their footsteps (Mammnan 2002). Masoloko (2005) discovered that parental involvement has a significant effect on a version of tiny formative deficiencies and at-risk behaviors that may cause children financial difficulty in the future. Guardians have the ability to influence children and therefore play a crucial role in preparing children to become guardians and workers in the future. Research conducted by (Nthomang, 2002) on over 400 male and female respondents, including teenagers, found that alcohol causes a loss of self-control and self-restraint, which leads to risky sexual behavior. Despite the fact that this is referred to as a consequence of alcohol misuse, the rounding of conditions and end outcomes contributes to the acceptability of bad elements. The usage, observation, and endorsement of alcoholic beverages by relatives (mother or father) are all factors that contribute to adolescents' alcohol use.
Allies/peers are individuals who are in a similar situation to you. The term "peer pressure" refers to the influence that partners may have on one another. Regardless of the fact that buddy weight does not have to be opposing, the term "weight" implies that the technique influences individuals to do things that are difficult or impossible for them to accomplish. So, despite the fact that it could be associated with either and either could be a constructive or a contrary difficulty for the individual, peer pressure usually refers to socially undesirable practices, such as alcohol experimentation, rather than socially alluring practices, such as academic achievement, the term peer pressure usually refers to socially undesirable practices, such as alcohol experimentation.

Companionship has an impact on alcohol abuse, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Many teenagers use sedates in an innovative way to avoid getting trashed by their peers or to impress others. According to the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, the best way for teenagers to avoid succumbing to association weight is to prepare ahead of time with ideas of what they want to say. Guardians may help high school students by acting as though they are in a different situation. The parent is anticipating the role. According to research conducted by Michigan University, association effects have been shown to be one of the most reliable markers of liquor consumption in young people. Companions are said to introduce young people to alcohol, provide them drink, exhibit alcohol-related behaviors, and influence their attitudes about alcohol. According to NACADA (2010), 65.5 percent of parents have no idea who their children's friends are. This puts the youngsters in danger of being exposed to alcohol misuse without their parents' awareness. Parents are not accessible for their children, according to the same research, partially due to their hectic schedules and the fact that youngsters spend the majority of their time at school.

Data and Methods
Data for this study involves 1632 participants selected for the purpose of this research of which questionnaire was the primary method of data collection used in obtaining relevant information’s from participants of this study. Similarly, in this study, the dependent variable is drunk Alcohol which is also a dichotomous variable with 1 indication Yes, and 0 indicating otherwise. Five independent variables were selected in this study which is Age of respondents, Percentage of peers drinking in 1 month plus, Household income, Male dummy variable with 1 indicating Male and 0 indicating Female. Lastly, race is another independent variable which is a categorical variable with 1 indicating White, 2 indicating black, and 3 indicating otherwise. A Logistic regression model technique will be used in this study to model the significant likelihood of the independent variables on the dependent variable which is the likelihood of alcohol among participants.

Descriptive statistics

Table 1 below shows the descriptive analysis of the variables in this study. The average age of respondents was 13.67 with a standard deviation of 0.94. The average percentage of peer drinking over 1 month was 2.11 with a standard deviation of 1.21. Similarly, the average income generated by each household was 45327.83. A majority number of the respondents were male (54.17%) while 45.83% of them were females. Furthermore, there are more white respondents (64.46%) than other races. 21.27% were black and the remaining 14.28% were from other races. Lastly, there are fewer participants than drink alcohol (38.11%) than those that do not drink alcohol (61.89%).

Logistic regression Analysis

From table 2 below, the result of the logit analysis was displayed. It was noted that, the higher the age of the Participants, the higher the odds of drinking alcohol. As a unit increase in the age of respondents increased the odds of drinking alcohol by a factor of 1.18 holding all other variables constant. This result is significant at the 0.01 level, two-tail test. The percentage peer drink also has, the higher the likelihood of making students drink alcohol. Similarly, an extra percentage increases the odds of students drinking alcohol by a factor of 1.34 holding other variables constant. This result is significant at the 0.001 level, two-tail test. Gender, race, and household income were insignificant variables that did not influence the precedents of students drinking alcohol.

Discussion and Conclusion

This study looks at Factors linked to high school students' alcohol use, problem drinking, and related repercussions. It was seen that two of the five independent variables significantly predict the chance of student alcohol usage. It can also be seen that the male dummy for gender is not a significant variable in this study as we can conclude that gender discrimination among participants is not a factor to take Alcohol. Women seem to be less prone than males to exhibit some risk factors for alcohol consumption and issues, while also being more likely to possess certain protective characteristics: Women are more likely than males to sense social consequences for drinking, and women are less likely to exhibit traits linked with binge drinking. Similarly, money generated by a family called household income is not a significant variable which means no matter the rate of income been low-income earners, high-income earner or mid-income earners participants is not influenced to take alcohol through this, and the last independent variable race was also seen as an insignificant independent variable to predict student alcohol usage as a student been black or white or from other race is not a factor of how they consume alcohol.


Barnes GM, Windle M. Family factors in adolescent alcohol and drug abuse. Pediatrician 1987; 14: 13–18.

Baer PE, Bray JH. Adolescent individuation and alcohol use. J. Stud. Alcohol Suppl. 1999; 13: 52–62.

Dumka LE, Roosa MW. The role of stress and family relationship in mediating problem drinking and fathers’ personal adjustment. J. Stud. Alcohol 1995; 56: 528– 537.

Erickson, E & Mackay, F. (2002).Neuroscience of psychoactive substance use and dependence.

Karugu, D. and Olela, A. (1993).Family Life Education Programme of Egerton and Kenyatta University: An Audience Research Report. Nairobi. Pathfinder Fund.

Rice, P. (1988). The Adolescent: Development Relationships and Culture. Allyn and Bacon Inc. Boston, London.

Shoemaker, D. (1994). Theories of Delinquency: An Examination of Explanations of DeliquentBehaviour. Oxford University Press: New York. United Nations (1992).


Logit Analysis
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Logit Analysis 2
Logit Analysis 3

Logit Analysis 4