In this SPSS assignment, we explore the relationship between playing positions, gender, and psychological characteristics among a sample of basketball players. The primary aim is to assess whether these factors have a significant impact on the psychological traits of the players. To achieve this, we conducted various statistical analyses and tests, providing a comprehensive understanding of the dataset.
Descriptive Statistics of the Data
|Years Competing:||0 to 2 years||10|
|3 to 5 years||29|
|11 to 15 years||6|
|More than 15 years||10|
[PARAGRAPH ABOUT DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS]
Normality and Reliability tests were performed in order to provide the conditions of MANOVA, nothing was found to cause a problem.
In accordance with Cramer and Bock (1966), a MANOVA was first performed on the means to help protect against inflating the Type 1 error rate in the follow-up ANOVAs and post-hoc comparisons. However, prior to conducting the MANOVA, a series of Pearson correlations were performed between all of the dependent variables in order to test the MANOVA assumption that the dependent variables would be correlated with each other in the moderate range (i.e., .20 - .60; Meyers, Gampst, & Guarino, 2006). As can be seen in Table 1, a meaningful pattern of correlations was observed amongst most of the dependent variables, suggesting the appropriateness of a MANOVA.
Note. N = 72; correlations greater than .10 are statistically (p < .01).
MANOVA was conducted to test the hypothesis1 that playing position among basketball players has a positive impact on psychological characteristics (guards, forwards, centers). A statistically non-significant MANOVA effect was obtained, Wilks’ Lambda = .68; F = 1,26 p > 0.05. Based on the findings, it can be said that "the positions of basketball players have no effect on their psychological characteristics" and therefore hypothesis1 was rejected.
MANOVA test result of Hypothesis 1
|Variables||Playing Position of Participants||Levene's|
Even though the question was structured as 3 groups (Male, Female, and Prefer not to Specify) since there are no “Prefer not to Specify” options selected. Since MANOVA test cannot be done with 2 groups, instead of the MANOVA test, a T-test was conducted to test hypothesis2 that gender has a great influence on the development of psychological characteristics of basketball players. According to the T-test which is given an insignificant result, “Gender doesn’t have a great influence on the development of psychological characteristics of basketball players.”
T-test results of Hypothesis 2
Based on the MANOVA test that was conducted it is clear that gender or players’ position does not impact their psychological state.
The small scale (N = 71) of the data on which the analyzes were made may have caused the scale not to yield the desired result. It can be tested with a larger scale of data (for example N = 404) to be of global importance and scale to work better.
Cramer, E. M., & Bock, R. D. (1966). Multivariate analysis. Review of Educational Research, 36, 604-617.
Meyers, L.S., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A. (2006). Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers.