Problem Description:
The aim of this SPSS homework is to conduct a statistical analysis to examine the impact of different methods of notetaking on test scores. Two types of notes were compared: "Notes with a laptop" and "Written notes." We assessed the presence of outliers, formulated null and research hypotheses, determined the appropriate measures of central tendency, used SPSS for data analysis, calculated effect size, and provided a rationale for our chosen analysis.
Solution
Part A:
Type of notes  Mean  Std Dev  Mean3*SD  Mean+3*SD  Min  Max 

Notes with a laptop  76.9524  13.05173  37.79721  116.1076  45  95 
Written notes  82.4286  16.58485  32.67405  132.1832  27  100 
The minimum value of the scores for “notes with a laptop” is larger than “Mean3*SD” while the maximum value of the scores for “notes with a laptop” is smaller than “Mean+3*SD”. Thus, there are not outliers in this data.
However, the minimum value of the scores for “written notes” is smaller than “Mean3*SD” while the maximum value of the scores for “written notes” is smaller than “Mean+3*SD”. Thus, there are outliers on the lower side of this data. Closer examination of the data shows that there is one outlier in the data and it is removed from the data.
1. State your null & research hypotheses:
Null hypothesis: There is no statistically significant difference in test scores for those who took written notes (IV level 2) compared to those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet
Research hypothesis: There exists a statistically significant difference in test scores for those who took written notes (IV level 2) compared to those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet
2. State the appropriate measure of central tendency for each variable:
Mean is the appropriate measure of central tendency for test scores and it is 80.98 for the entire data.
Mode is the appropriate measure of central tendency for type of notes and it is took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet since we removed one data value for “written notes”.
3. Copy and Paste your SPSS output:
Group Statistics  

Type of Notes  N  Mean  Std. Deviation  Std. Error Mean  
Test Scores  Laptop  21  76.9524  13.05173  2.84812 
Written notes  20  85.2000  10.94291  2.44691 
Independent Samples Test  


Levene's Test for Equality of Variances  ttest for Equality of Means  
F  Sig.  t  df  Sig. (2tailed)  Mean Difference  Std. Error Difference  95% Confidence Interval of the Difference  
Lower  Upper  
Test Scores  Equal variances assumed  .193  .663  2.187  39  .035  8.24762  3.77130  15.87580  .61944 
Equal variances not assumed  2.197  38.399  .034  8.24762  3.75488  15.84639  .64885 
4. Include any additional statistics (e.g., effect size) appropriate for this analysis:
 Note: You may need to calculate some statistics yourself, if not provided by SPSS.
Cohen’s d = (85.276.9524)/√((13.0522+10.9432)/2)
= 0.685
5. Give a rationale for why you needed to use this specific analysis for this study:
The test score, a scale variable, is the dependent variable. It is being compared for the two groups: for those who took written notes (IV level 2) and those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet and thus, is a nominal variable. Since we are comparing the test scores for binary coded variable, independent samples ttest is used. And since we are comparing whether test scores are same or differ across two groups, it is a twotailed test.
6. Using APA style, write up your procedure & results sections in two separate paragraphs – like in your textbook:
Procedure:
The participants were randomly selected in the sample from the university. The students in the university were asked to view an hour long prerecorded video lecture showing 100 different ways to cook pasta. They were randomly assigned to take notes either using a laptop without internet connection or by hand. In each, 21 students were selected. After 10 minutes of their watching the video, they were tested with 200 ways to cook pasta and were asked to indicate the 100 that were included in the video.
Results:
An independentsamples ttest was conducted to compare test scores for those who took written notes and to those who took notes with a laptop that was not connected to the internet. There was a significant difference in the scores for those who took written notes (M=85.2, SD=10.94) and for those who took notes with a laptop that was not connected to the internet conditions (M=76.95, SD=13.05); t(39)=2.187, p <0.05, Cohen’s d=0.69.
Part B:
Type of notes  Mean  Std Dev  Mean3*SD  Mean+3*SD  Min  Max 

Laptop without internet  76.9524  13.05173  37.79721  116.1076  45  95 
Written notes  85.2  10.943  52.371  118.029  27  100 
Laptop with internet  70.9524  11.8764  35.3232  106.5816  48  91 
The minimum value of the scores for “notes with a laptop with internet” is larger than “Mean3*SD” while the maximum value of the scores for “notes with a laptop with internet” is smaller than “Mean+3*SD”. Thus, there are not outliers in this data.
1. State your null & research hypotheses:
Null hypothesis: There is no statistically significant difference in test scores for those who took written notes (IV level 2), those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet and those who took notes with a laptop that has internet.
Research hypothesis: There test scores were statistically significant for one of the pairs from those who took written notes (IV level 2), those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet and those who took notes with a laptop that has internet.
2. State the appropriate measure of central tendency for each variable:
Mean is the appropriate measure of central tendency for test scores and it is 77.58 for the entire data.
Mode is the appropriate measure of central tendency for type of notes and it is bimodal with modal value of took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet and those who took notes with a laptop that has internet since we removed one data value for “written notes”.
3. Copy and Paste your SPSS output:
Descriptives
Test Scores

N  Mean  Std. Deviation  Std. Error  95% Confidence Interval for Mean  Minimum  Maximum  

Lower Bound  Upper Bound  
Laptop without internet  21  76.9524  13.05173  2.84812  71.0113  82.8935  45.00  95.00 
Written notes  20  85.2000  10.94291  2.44691  80.0786  90.3214  57.00  100.00 
Laptop with internet  21  70.9524  11.87635  2.59163  65.5463  76.3584  48.00  91.00 
Total  62  77.5806  13.17915  1.67375  74.2338  80.9275  45.00  100.00 
Levene Statistic  df1  df2  Sig. 

.099  2  59  .906 
ANOVA
Test Scores
Sum of Squares  df  Mean Square  F  Sig.  

Between Groups  2091.992  2  1045.996  7.258  .002 
Within Groups  8503.105  59  144.120  
Total  10595.097  61 
4. Include any additional statistics (e.g., effect size) appropriate for this analysis:
 Note: You may need to calculate some statistics yourself, if not provided by SPSS.
Effect size = SSbetween/SStotal = 2091.992/10595.097=0.197
5. Give a rationale for why you needed to use this specific analysis for this study:
The test score, a scale variable, is the dependent variable. It is being compared for the three groups: for those who took written notes (IV level 2) , those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet and those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 3) with internet and thus, is a nominal variable. Since we are comparing the test scores for a nominal variable with three categories, oneway ANOVA is used. And since we are comparing whether test scores are same or differ across three groups, it is a twotailed test.
6. Using APA style, write up your procedure & results sections in two separate paragraphs – like in your textbook:
Procedure:
The participants were randomly selected in the sample from the university. The students in the university were asked to view an hour long prerecorded video lecture showing 100 different ways to cook pasta. They were randomly assigned to take notes by hand or by using a laptop with or without internet connection. In each, 21 students were selected. After 10 minutes of their watching the video, they were tested with 200 ways to cook pasta and were asked to indicate the 100 that were included in the video.
Results:
A oneway ANOVA was conducted to compare test scores for those who took written notes, to those who took notes with a laptop that was not connected to the internet and to those who took notes with a laptop that was connected to the internet. There was a significant effect of taking notes by hand or using laptop with or without internet on test scores at the p<.05 level for the three conditions [F(2,59) = 7.258, p = 0.002, ή2=0.20]. Post hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that the mean test score for taking notes by hand (M = 85.20, SD = 10.94) was significantly different than taking notes with laptop with internet (M = 70.95, SD = 11.88). However, test scores for taking notes using laptop without internet (M = 76.95, SD = 13.05) was not significantly different than from taking notes by hand and laptop with internet.