# Exploring the Impact of Note-Taking Methods on Test Scores in SPSS

In this study, we’ve used SPSS to analyze how different methods of taking notes during a lecture affect the subsequent test scores of university students. We analyzed two key aspects in two distinct parts. In Part A, we investigated whether test scores differed significantly between students who took notes with a laptop (offline) and those who opted for traditional handwritten notes. Part B extended our exploration, examining the impact of three note-taking conditions: handwritten notes, laptop notes without internet, and laptop notes with internet access. These findings provide valuable insights into the influence of note-taking strategies on academic performance, shedding light on the choices students make and their potential consequences.

## Problem Description:

The aim of this SPSS homework is to conduct a statistical analysis to examine the impact of different methods of note-taking on test scores. Two types of notes were compared: "Notes with a laptop" and "Written notes." We assessed the presence of outliers, formulated null and research hypotheses, determined the appropriate measures of central tendency, used SPSS for data analysis, calculated effect size, and provided a rationale for our chosen analysis.

Solution

Part A:

Type of notes Mean Std Dev Mean-3*SD Mean+3*SD Min Max
Notes with a laptop 76.9524 13.05173 37.79721 116.1076 45 95
Written notes 82.4286 16.58485 32.67405 132.1832 27 100

The minimum value of the scores for “notes with a laptop” is larger than “Mean-3*SD” while the maximum value of the scores for “notes with a laptop” is smaller than “Mean+3*SD”. Thus, there are not outliers in this data.

However, the minimum value of the scores for “written notes” is smaller than “Mean-3*SD” while the maximum value of the scores for “written notes” is smaller than “Mean+3*SD”. Thus, there are outliers on the lower side of this data. Closer examination of the data shows that there is one outlier in the data and it is removed from the data.

### 1. State your null & research hypotheses:

Null hypothesis: There is no statistically significant difference in test scores for those who took written notes (IV level 2) compared to those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet

Research hypothesis: There exists a statistically significant difference in test scores for those who took written notes (IV level 2) compared to those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet

### 2. State the appropriate measure of central tendency for each variable:

Mean is the appropriate measure of central tendency for test scores and it is 80.98 for the entire data.

Mode is the appropriate measure of central tendency for type of notes and it is took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet since we removed one data value for “written notes”.

### 3. Copy and Paste your SPSS output:

Group Statistics
Type of Notes N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Test Scores Laptop 21 76.9524 13.05173 2.84812
Written notes 20 85.2000 10.94291 2.44691
Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means
F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Test Scores Equal variances assumed .193 .663 -2.187 39 .035 -8.24762 3.77130 -15.87580 -.61944
Equal variances not assumed -2.197 38.399 .034 -8.24762 3.75488 -15.84639 -.64885

### 4. Include any additional statistics (e.g., effect size) appropriate for this analysis:

- Note: You may need to calculate some statistics yourself, if not provided by SPSS.

Cohen’s d = (85.2-76.9524)/√((13.0522+10.9432)/2)

= 0.685

### 5. Give a rationale for why you needed to use this specific analysis for this study:

The test score, a scale variable, is the dependent variable. It is being compared for the two groups: for those who took written notes (IV level 2) and those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet and thus, is a nominal variable. Since we are comparing the test scores for binary coded variable, independent samples t-test is used. And since we are comparing whether test scores are same or differ across two groups, it is a two-tailed test.

### 6. Using APA style, write up your procedure & results sections in two separate paragraphs – like in your textbook:

Procedure:

The participants were randomly selected in the sample from the university. The students in the university were asked to view an hour long pre-recorded video lecture showing 100 different ways to cook pasta. They were randomly assigned to take notes either using a laptop without internet connection or by hand. In each, 21 students were selected. After 10 minutes of their watching the video, they were tested with 200 ways to cook pasta and were asked to indicate the 100 that were included in the video.

Results:

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare test scores for those who took written notes and to those who took notes with a laptop that was not connected to the internet. There was a significant difference in the scores for those who took written notes (M=85.2, SD=10.94) and for those who took notes with a laptop that was not connected to the internet conditions (M=76.95, SD=13.05); t(39)=-2.187, p <0.05, Cohen’s d=0.69.

Part B:

Type of notes Mean Std Dev Mean-3*SD Mean+3*SD Min Max
Laptop without internet 76.9524 13.05173 37.79721 116.1076 45 95
Written notes 85.2 10.943 52.371 118.029 27 100
Laptop with internet 70.9524 11.8764 35.3232 106.5816 48 91

The minimum value of the scores for “notes with a laptop with internet” is larger than “Mean-3*SD” while the maximum value of the scores for “notes with a laptop with internet” is smaller than “Mean+3*SD”. Thus, there are not outliers in this data.

### 1. State your null & research hypotheses:

Null hypothesis: There is no statistically significant difference in test scores for those who took written notes (IV level 2), those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet and those who took notes with a laptop that has internet.

Research hypothesis: There test scores were statistically significant for one of the pairs from those who took written notes (IV level 2), those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet and those who took notes with a laptop that has internet.

### 2. State the appropriate measure of central tendency for each variable:

Mean is the appropriate measure of central tendency for test scores and it is 77.58 for the entire data.

Mode is the appropriate measure of central tendency for type of notes and it is bimodal with modal value of took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet and those who took notes with a laptop that has internet since we removed one data value for “written notes”.

### 3. Copy and Paste your SPSS output:

Descriptives

Test Scores

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Minimum Maximum
Lower Bound Upper Bound
Laptop without internet 21 76.9524 13.05173 2.84812 71.0113 82.8935 45.00 95.00
Written notes 20 85.2000 10.94291 2.44691 80.0786 90.3214 57.00 100.00
Laptop with internet 21 70.9524 11.87635 2.59163 65.5463 76.3584 48.00 91.00
Total 62 77.5806 13.17915 1.67375 74.2338 80.9275 45.00 100.00
Test of Homogeneity of Variances

Test Scores
Levene Statistic df1 df2 Sig.
.099 2 59 .906

ANOVA

Test Scores

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 2091.992 2 1045.996 7.258 .002
Within Groups 8503.105 59 144.120
Total 10595.097 61

### 4. Include any additional statistics (e.g., effect size) appropriate for this analysis:

- Note: You may need to calculate some statistics yourself, if not provided by SPSS.

Effect size = SSbetween/SStotal = 2091.992/10595.097=0.197

### 5. Give a rationale for why you needed to use this specific analysis for this study:

The test score, a scale variable, is the dependent variable. It is being compared for the three groups: for those who took written notes (IV level 2) , those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 1) that was not connected to the internet and those who took notes with a laptop (IV level 3) with internet and thus, is a nominal variable. Since we are comparing the test scores for a nominal variable with three categories, one-way ANOVA is used. And since we are comparing whether test scores are same or differ across three groups, it is a two-tailed test.

### 6. Using APA style, write up your procedure & results sections in two separate paragraphs – like in your textbook:

Procedure:

The participants were randomly selected in the sample from the university. The students in the university were asked to view an hour long pre-recorded video lecture showing 100 different ways to cook pasta. They were randomly assigned to take notes by hand or by using a laptop with or without internet connection. In each, 21 students were selected. After 10 minutes of their watching the video, they were tested with 200 ways to cook pasta and were asked to indicate the 100 that were included in the video.

Results:

A one-way ANOVA was conducted to compare test scores for those who took written notes, to those who took notes with a laptop that was not connected to the internet and to those who took notes with a laptop that was connected to the internet. There was a significant effect of taking notes by hand or using laptop with or without internet on test scores at the p<.05 level for the three conditions [F(2,59) = 7.258, p = 0.002, ή2=0.20]. Post hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that the mean test score for taking notes by hand (M = 85.20, SD = 10.94) was significantly different than taking notes with laptop with internet (M = 70.95, SD = 11.88). However, test scores for taking notes using laptop without internet (M = 76.95, SD = 13.05) was not significantly different than from taking notes by hand and laptop with internet.