# Statistical Analysis of Gender Disparities in Overall Well-Being and Online Weight Information

In this statistics homework, we resolve the intricate dynamics of gender disparities concerning overall well-being, encompassing variables such as positive affect, negative affect, and perceived stress. We explore how these emotional states and gender intersect to influence total life satisfaction, providing valuable insights for interventions aimed at enhancing holistic well-being.

## Problem Statement 1: Analysis of Overall Well-Being by Gender and Covariates using ANOVA

This statistical analysis homework aims to investigate potential gender-based disparities in overall well-being, as measured by total life satisfaction. We consider the influence of covariates, including positive affect, negative affect, and perceived stress, on this relationship. The study encompasses 432 participants, consisting of 184 males and 248 females.

### Solution

Sample Characteristics: The study encompassed 432 participants, consisting of 184 males and 248 females.

Main Findings: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects:

• Dependent Variable: Total life satisfaction
Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F
Corrected Model 6261.794a 4 1565.448 49.063
Intercept 4184.650 1 4184.650 131.153
tposaff 874.466 1 874.466 27.407
tnegaff 14.330 1 14.330 0.449
tpstress 1782.740 1 1782.740 55.874
sex 410.139 1 410.139 12.854
Error 13624.123 427 31.907
Total 235626.000 432
Corrected Total 19885.917 431
• R Squared = .315 (Adjusted R Squared = .308)

Interpretation:

• Gender Impact: A significant gender effect (F = 12.854, p < .001) indicates a substantial difference in overall well-being between males and females. When controlling for positive affect, negative affect, and perceived stress, females report lower overall well-being (total life satisfaction) compared to males.

Covariates:

• Positive Affect: Positive affect positively correlates with overall well-being, suggesting higher positive affect leads to greater overall well-being.
• Negative Affect: Negative affect does not significantly impact overall well-being, implying differences in negative affect levels have minimal influence.
• Perceived Stress: Perceived stress negatively relates to overall well-being, meaning higher stress levels result in lower overall well-being.

Implications:

These findings underscore the importance of acknowledging gender disparities and the roles of distinct emotional states (e.g., positive affect and perceived stress) in assessing overall well-being. Interventions targeting positive affect enhancement and stress mitigation could enhance overall well-being, especially for females.

Conclusion:

This study provides substantial evidence of gender-based differences in overall well-being, emphasizing potential avenues for intervention and support to enhance holistic well-being.

## Problem Statement 2: Logistic Regression - Impact of Gender, Education, and Their Interaction on Online Weight Information Seeking

This homework solution explores the impact of gender and education on seeking online information about weight control, considering the interaction between these variables. The analysis uses logistic regression with the dependent variable "Looking for information about weight online" and categorical independent variables "Respondent's sex" and "Highest education level completed." The study investigates the significance of gender, education, and their interaction on online weight information seeking.

### Solution

Method: We conducted a logistic regression analysis using the PewHealth dataset, examining the dependent variable, "Looking for information about weight online," in relation to the categorical independent variables, "Respondent's sex" and "Highest education level completed." We also explored the interaction between these variables.

Model Fit and Significance: Goodness-of-fit statistics confirmed an acceptable model-data fit. The omnibus test validated the model's superiority over the null model (p < 0.001).

Effects of Gender, Education, and Interaction: Both gender (p < 0.001) and education (p = 0.001) significantly influenced online weight information seeking. The interaction effect between gender and education was also significant (p = 0.006).

Parameter Estimates: Parameter estimates revealed the following significant effects:

• Females were less likely to seek online weight information compared to males (B = -0.961, p < 0.001).
• Certain education levels were associated with differing probabilities of seeking information. The interaction term "Sex x Educ" indicated that the impact of gender on information-seeking behavior was contingent on education level (B = -0.092, p = 0.006).
Discussion:

The results illuminate a nuanced relationship between gender, education, and online weight information seeking. Contrary to stereotypes, gender alone does not determine this behavior; education level interacts with gender to shape these tendencies.

Conclusion:

This analysis highlights the combined influence of gender and education on online weight information seeking, offering a more comprehensive understanding of this behavior's complexity, shedding light on the interplay between social and educational factors.